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Geography >> North America >> Mexico History and Timeline


Capital: Mexico City (Distrito Federal)

Population: 127,575,529

The Geography of Mexico

Borders: United States (the states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas), Belize, Guatemala, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Ocean

Country of Mexico Map

Total Size: 1,972,550 square km

Size Comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Geographical Coordinates: 23 00 N, 102 00 W

World Region or Continent: North America

General Terrain: high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

Geographical Low Point: Laguna Salada -10 m

Geographical High Point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Major Cities: MEXICO CITY (capital) 19.319 million; Guadalajara 4.338 million; Monterrey 3.838 million; Puebla 2.278 million; Tijuana 1.629 million (2009)

Major Landforms: Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains, Trans-Mexico Volcano Belt, Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexican Plateau, Baja Peninsula, Yucatan Peninsula, Pico de Orizaba

Major Bodies of Water: Rio Grande, Grijalva River, Usumacinta River, Culiacan River, Lake Chapala, Lake Texcoco, Gulf of California, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Pacific Ocean

Chichen Itza
Famous Places: Chichen Itza, Cancun, Cozumel, Puerto Vallarta, Teotihuacan Pyramids, Chapultepec, National Palace, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Acapulco, Riviera Maya, El Arco de Los Cabos, Palenque, Cabo San Lucas

Economy of Mexico

Major Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

Agricultural Products: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products

Natural Resources: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Major Exports: manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton

Major Imports: metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts

States of Mexico
(click for larger view)
Currency: Mexican peso (MXN)

National GDP: $1,667,000,000,000

Government of Mexico

Type of Government: federal republic

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

Divisions: The country of Mexico is divided up into 31 states and one Federal District. The Federal District includes the capital city of Mexico City. The largest states by population are Mexico, the Federal District (Mexico City), Veracruz, and Jalisco. The largest by area are Chihuahua, Sonora, Coahuila, and Durango.

National Anthem or Song: Himno Nacional Mexicano (National Anthem of Mexico)

National Symbols:
Country of Mexico Flag
Description of flag: The flag of Mexico was adopted on September 16, 1968. It consists of three vertical stripes of green (left or hoist side), white (middle), and red (right). The Mexican coat of arms is at the center of the flag. The color green stands for hope and prosperity, white for peace and harmony, and red for the blood of Mexican heroes.

National Holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Other Holidays: New Years' Day (January 1), Constitution Day (February 5), Benito Juarez's Birthday (March 21), Labor Day (May 1), Cinco de Mayo (May 5), Independence Day (September 15), Revolution Day (November 20), Christmas (December 25)

The People of Mexico

Languages Spoken: Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages

Nationality: Mexican(s)

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%, other 5%

Origin of the name Mexico: The name "Mexico" comes from a Nahuatl word describing the land where the Aztecs lived. It was on the site of the Aztec city Tenochtitlan that Mexico City was built by the Spanish.

Famous People:

Geography >> North America >> Mexico History and Timeline

** Source for population (2019 est.) is United Nations. GDP (2011 est.) is CIA World Factbook.

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